Modern man, who is a biological species, continues to live in artificial cities. Urban environment provokes negative psychological state of the person. It is necessary to provide a symbiotic relationship between nature, technology, bio-materials and architecture for harmonization of emotional level of the person, visual ecology, urban saturation, formation of an architectural environment. For the competent shaping of architectural space and adding emotional qualities for architecture spaces, the principles of perception of an architectural environment with the natural parameters and principles of functioning of natural organisms were brought out.
The principles of perception of architectural environment by natural settings:
– Geometric: spirality, fractality, integrity, cellularity, curvature, straightness, branching, symmetry, asymmetry, flatness, folding, dynamism, static nature.
– Physiological features: visual (light, shadow, color), tactile ( materials), acoustic(echoing, natural sounds), sense of smell.
– Psycho-emotional: sociology of spaces, harmonization, aesthetics, mimicry of emotions, manifested in natural environment by architecture.
– Spatial: scale, multilayer, formation, incorporation of natural components (water, air, greenery, falling lights of sun) into architectural complex.
– Principles of functioning nature: adaptation, transformation, growth, recycling, self-organization, autonomy, multifunctional.
Based on these principles there have been implemented a project “Urban conservation area as a centre of environmental education of citizens” (Kazan, Russia) and a project “Living city. The anatomy of architecture space” (Sao Paulo, Brazil).
The project «Urban conservation area» is an area with 7 natural climatic areas with an artificial microclimate. There is the individual architectural imagination for each natural area dividing by similarity of landscape, spatial and volumetric features of the Arctic desert, Taiga, Forest-steppe, Tropical desert, Savanna, Monsoon forest, Wet forests.
Architectural concept of imitation of nature consists of fractal concrete, curved rocks, tree-like columns branching to the top, glass enclosing shell, cocoon-shaped volumes formed by overlaying concrete slabs with facing terraces. Architecture imitates nature by spatial and emotional characteristics, but doesn’t imitate it literally. Spatial scales of artificial objects increase emotional outbursts and manifestations of respect and admiration of natural structures.
The concept of “Living city” involves a physical ability of architectural space to interact with environment, adapt and create a new microclimate, create energy resources, reticulate waste, recover and purify air, water and land using programmed protocells, microalgae, aerobic algae and bacteria.
The model of «Living city» has a multifunctional structure. On the ground level model is based by pillars, leaving open and free from building land. There are parks, squares, fairground, shops, cafes and restaurants on an artificially created relief. There are residential units, biodigital blocks, bacterial sponge blocks, blocks of cleaning and storage of water, blocks for recycling waste inside the massive pillars. The first level has a porous structure, inside of which public and office spaces are formed. Main residential blocks are on upper level. Green well, the gaps, function as filters of cleaning air, at the same time passing light in a porous space. Living and working in these spaces, man gets the correct psycho-emotional state, namely feelings of harmony, emotional recovery, the desire to act and live.